Erica Lehman, MD PRO HEALTH GROUP, INC. TEL: (310) 504-3700 FAX: (310) 919-1199

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Research

Congenital Lyme Disease

 

Bale JF, Murph JR. Congenital infections and the nervous system. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 1992;39(4):669–690. doi:10.1016/s0031- 3955(16)38370-5. [PubMed]

 

Brzostek T. [Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis co-incident with Lyme borreliosis in pregnant woman--a case study] [in Polish] Przegl Epidemiol. 2004;58(2):289–94. [PubMed]

 

Gardner T. Lyme disease. In: Remington JS, Klein JO, eds. Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1995:447–528 chap 11.

 

Gardner T. Lyme disease. In: Remington JS, Klein JO. Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant. 4th ed. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Co; December 13, 1994.

 

Goldenberg RL, Thompson C. The infectious origins of stillbirth. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2003;189(3):861–873. doi:10.1067/s0002-9378(03)00470-8. [PubMed]

 

Gustafson JM, Burgess EC, Wachal MD, Steinberg H. Intrauterine transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1993;54(6):882–890. [PubMed]

 

MacDonald AB, Benach JL, Burgdorfer W. Stillbirth following maternal Lyme disease. N Y State J Med. 1987;11:615–616. [PubMed]

 

MacDonald AB. Gestational Lyme borreliosis. Implications for the fetus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1989;15(4):657–677. [PubMed]

 

Macdonald AB. Human fetal borreliosis, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal death. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene. Series A: Medical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases, Virology, Parasitology. 1986;263(1-2):189–200. doi:10.1016/s0176-6724(86)80122-5. [PubMed]

 

Maraspin V, Cimperman J, Lotric-Furlan S, Pleterski-Rigler D, Strle F. Erythema migrans in pregnancy. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 2000;111:933–40. [PubMed]

 

Markowitz LE, Steere AC, Benach JL, Slade JD, Broome CV. Lyme disease during pregnancy. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 1986;255(24):3394. doi:10.1001/jama.1986.03370240064038. [PubMed]

 

Schlesinger PA, Duray PH, Burke BA, Steere AC, Stillman MT. Maternal-fetal transmission of the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1985;103(1):67. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-103-1-67. [PubMed]

 

Silver RM, Yang L, Daynes RA, Branch WD, Salafia CM, Weis JJ. Fetal outcome in Murine Lyme disease. Infection and Immunity. 1995;63(1):66–72. [PubMed]

 

Strobino BA, Williams CL, Abid S, Ghalson R, Spierling P. Lyme disease and pregnancy outcome: A prospective s of two thousand prenatal patients. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1993;169(2):367–374. doi:10.1016/0002-9378(93)90088-z. [PubMed]

 

Weber K, Bratzke H-J, Neubert U, Wilske B, Duray PH. Borrelia burgdorferi in a newborn despite oral penicillin for Lyme borreliosis during pregnancy. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 1988;7(4):286–288. doi:10.1097/00006454-198804000-00010. [PubMed]

Dermatological Manifestations

 

Acrodermatitis Atrophicans

 

Aberer E, Klade H. Cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infection. 1991 Jul-Aug;19(4):284-6. [PubMed]

 

Busch U, Hizo-Teufel C, Böhmer R, Fingerle V, Rössler D, Wilske B, Preac-Mursic V. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated from cutaneous Lyme borreliosis biopsies differentiated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Scand J Infect Dis. 1996;28(6):583-9. [PubMed]

 

Schempp C, Bocklage H, Lange R, Kölmel HW, Orfanos CE, Gollnick H. Further evidence for Borrelia burgdorferi infection in morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus confirmed by DNA amplification. J Invest Dermatol. 1993;100(5):717- 20. [PubMed]

 

Wienecke R1, Zöchling N, Neubert U, Schlüpen EM, Meurer M, Volkenandt M. Molecular subtyping of Borrelia burgdorferi in erythema migrans and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. J Invest Dermatol. 1994;103(1):19-22. [PubMed]

 

 

Borrelial Lymphocytoma

 

Arnež M, Ružić-Sabljić E. Borrelial Lymphocytoma in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34(12):1319-22. [PubMed]

 

Colli C, Leinweber B, Müllegger R, Chott A, Kerl H, Cerroni L. Borrelia burgdorferi-associated lymphocytoma cutis: clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular study of 106 cases. J Cutan Pathol. 2004;31(3):232-40. [PubMed]

 

Glatz M, Resinger A, Semmelweis K, Ambros-Rudolph CM, Müllegger RR. Clinical spectrum of skin manifestations of Lyme borreliosis in 204 children in Austria. Acta Derm Venereol. 2015;95(5):565-71. [PubMed]

 

Gordillo-Pérez G, Torres J, Solórzano-Santos F, de Martino S, Lipsker D, Velázquez E, Ramon G, Onofre M, Jaulhac B.Borrelia burgdorferi infection and cutaneous Lyme disease, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(10):1556-8. [PubMed]

 

Krbkova L, Stanek G. Therapy of Lyme borreliosis in children. Infection. 1996;24(2):170-3. [PubMed]

 

Lenormand C, Jaulhac B, De Martino S, Barthel C, Lipsker D. Species of Borrelia burgdorferi complex that cause borrelial lymphocytoma in France. Br J Dermatol. 2009;161(1):174-6. [PubMed]

 

Maraspin V, Cimperman J, Lotric-Furlan S, Ruzić-Sabljić E, Jurca T, Picken RN, Strle F. Solitary borrelial lymphocytoma in adult patients. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002;114(13-14):515-23. [PubMed]

 

Maraspin V, Nahtigal Klevišar M, Ružić-Sabljić E, Lusa L, Strle F. Borrelial Lymphocytoma in Adult Patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(7):914-21. [PubMed]

 

Müllegger RR, Means TK, Shin JJ, Lee M, Jones KL, Glickstein LJ, Luster AD, Steere AC. Chemokine signatures in the skin disorders of Lyme borreliosis in Europe: predominance of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in erythema migrans and acrodermatitis and CXCL13 in lymphocytoma. Infect Immun. 2007;75(9):4621-8. [PubMed]

 

Strle F, Maraspin V, Pleterski-Rigler D, Lotric-Furlan S, Ruzić-Sabljić E, Jurca T, Cimperman J. Treatment of borrelial lymphocytoma. Infection. 1996;24(1):80-4. [PubMed]

 

 

Granuloma Annulare, Morphea, Localized Scleroderma, Lichen Sclerosus And Atrophicus

 

Aberer E, Schmidt BL, Breier F, Kinaciyan T, Luger A. Amplification of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi in urine samples of patients with granuloma annulare and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. 1999;135(2):210-2. [PubMed]

 

Asbrink E, Brehmer-Andersson E, Hovmark A. Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans--a spirochetosis. Clinical and histopathological picture based on 32 patients; course and relationship to erythema chronicum migrans Afzelius. Am J Dermatopathol. 1986;8(3):209-19. [PubMed]

 

Buechner SA, Winkelmann RK, Lautenschlager S, Gilli L, Rufli T. Localized scleroderma associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical observations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;29(2 Pt 1):190-6. [PubMed]

 

Eisendle K, Grabner T, Zelger B. Morphoea: a manifestation of infection with Borrelia species? Br J Dermatol. 2007;157(6):1189-98. [PubMed]

 

Kaya G, Berset M, Prins C, Chavaz P, Saurat JH. Chronic borreliosis presenting with morphea- and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus-like cutaneous lesions. a case report. Dermatology. 2001;202(4):373-5. [PubMed]

 

Malane MS, Grant-Kels JM, Feder HM Jr, Luger SW. Diagnosis of Lyme disease based on dermatologic manifestations. Ann Intern Med. 1991;114(6):490-8. [PubMed]

 

Menni S, Pistritto G, Gelmetti C, Stanta G, Trevisan G. Eruzione a tipo pitiriasi lichenoide con perifollicoliti in corso di borreliosi di Lyme. Eur J Pediat Dermatol. 1994;4:77–80.

 

Ozkan S, Atabey N, Fetil E, Erkizan V, Günes AT. Evidence for Borrelia burgdorferi in morphea and lichen sclerosus. Int J Dermatol. 2000;39(4):278-83. [PubMed]

 

Schempp C, Bocklage H, Lange R, Kölmel HW, Orfanos CE, Gollnick H. Further evidence for Borrelia burgdorferi infection in morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus confirmed by DNA amplification. J Invest Dermatol. 1993;100(5):717- 20. [PubMed]

 

Trevisan G, Rees DH, Stinco G. Morphea Borrelia burgdorferi and localized scleroderma. Clin Dermatol. 1994;12(3):475-9. [ScienceDirect]

 

Vasudevan B, Chatterjee M. Lyme Borreliosis and Skin. Indian J Dermatol. 2013;58(3): 167–174. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.110822 [PubMed]

 

Vasudevan B, Sagar A, Bahal A, Mohanty AP. Extragenital lichen sclerosus with aetiological link to Borrelia. MJAFI. 2011;67:370–3. [PubMed]

 

Zinchuk AN, Kalyuzhna LD, Pasichna IA. Is Localized Scleroderma Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi? Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2016;16(9):577-80. [PubMed]

 

 

Other Cutaneous Manifestations

 

Abele DC, Anders KH, Chandler FW. Benign lymphocytic infiltration (Jessner-

Kanof): another manifestation of borreliosis? J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21(4 Pt1):795-7. [PubMed]

 

Baldari U, Cattonar P, Nobile C, Celli B, Righini MG, Trevisan G. Infantile acrodermatitis of Gianotti-Crosti and Lyme borreliosis. Acta Derm Venereol. 1996;76(3):242-3. [PubMed]

 

Hashimoto Y, Takahashi H, Matsuo S, Hirai K, Takemori N, Nakao M, Miyamoto K, Iizuka H. Polymerase chain reaction of Borrelia burgdorferi flagellin gene in Shulman syndrome. Dermatology. 1996;192(2):136-9. [PubMed]

 

Lesire V, Machet L, Toledano C, de Muret A, Maillard H, Lorette G, Vaillant L.

Atypical erythema multiforme occurring at the early phase of Lyme disease? Acta Derm Venereol. 2000;80(3):222. [PubMed]

 

Olson JC, Esterly NB. Urticarial vasculitis and Lyme disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22(6 Pt 1):1114-6. [PubMed]

 

 

Lyme Disease Of Skin And Mucous Membranes

 

Asbrink E, Hovmark A. Lyme borreliosis: aspects of tick-borne Borrelia burgdorferi infection from a dermatologic viewpoint. Semin Dermatol. 1990;9(4):277-91. [PubMed]

 

Middelveen MJ, Bandoski C, Burke J, Sapi E, Filush KR, Wang Y, Franco A, Mayne P, Stricker RB. Exploring the association between Morgellons disease and Lyme disease: identification of Borrelia burgdorferi in Morgellons disease patients. BMC Dermatol. 2015 Feb 12;15:1. [PubMed]

 

Vasudevan B, Chatterjee M. Lyme Borreliosis and Skin. Indian J Dermatol. 2013; 58(3):167–174. [PubMed]

 

 

Lyme Alopecia

 

Cimperman J, Maraspin V, Lotric-Furlan S, Ruzić-Sabljić E, Avsic-Zupanc T, Strle F. Diffuse reversible alopecia in patients with Lyme meningitis and tick- borne encephalitis. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 2000;111:976–7. [PubMed]

 

Gubertini N, Bonin S, Trevisan G. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicans, scleroderma en coup de sabre and Lyme borreliosis. Dermatol Reports. 2011;28;3(2):e27. doi: 10.4081/dr.2011.e27. [PubMed]

 

Hercogová J, Brzonova I. Lyme disease in central Europe. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2001;14(2):133-7. [PubMed]

 

Schwarzenbach R, Djawari D. [Pseudopelade Brocq--possible sequela of stage III borrelia infection?] [in German]. Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete. 1999;49(11):835–7. [PubMed]

 

 

Other Lesions In Lyme Disease

 

Bauer J1, Leitz G, Palmedo G, Hügel H. Anetoderma: another facet of Lyme disease? J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48(5 Suppl):S86-8. [PubMed]

 

Glatz M, Resinger A, Semmelweis K, Ambros-Rudolph CM, Müllegger RR. Clinical spectrum of skin manifestations of Lyme borreliosis in 204 children in Austria. Acta Derm Venereol. 2015;95(5):565-71. [PubMed]

 

Melski JW, Reed KD, Mitchell PD, Barth GD. Primary and secondary erythema migrans in central Wisconsin. Arch Dermatol. 1993;129(6):709-16. [PubMed]

 

Latent Lyme, Unspecified

 

Coyle PK1, Dattwyler R. Spirochetal infection of the central nervous system. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1990 Dec;4(4):731-46. PMID: 2277196 [PubMed]

 

Gylfe A, Wahlgren M, Fahlén L, Bergström S. Activation of latent Lyme borreliosis concurrent with a herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34(12):922-4. PMID:12587627 [PubMed]

 

Lesniak OM, Belikov ES. [The classification of Lyme borreliosis (Lyme disease)]. Ter Arkh. 1995;67(11):49-51. PMID: 8571252 [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J, Kasas S, Zurn AD, McCall S, Yu S, McGeer PL. Persisting atypical and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and local inflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Neuroinflammation. 2008;5(1):40. doi:10.1186/1742-2094-5-40. [PubMed]

 

Nafeev AA, Klimova LV. [Clinical manifestations of neuroborreliosis in the Volga region]. Ter Arkh. 2010;82(11):68-70. [Article in Russian] [PubMed]

 

Pachner AR. Spirochetal diseases of the CNS. Neurol Clin. 1986;4(1):207-222. [PubMed]

 

Pfister HW, Preac-Mursic V, Wilske B, Einhäupl KM, Weinberger K.Latent Lyme neuroborreliosis: presence of Borrelia burgdorferi in the cerebrospinal fluid without concurrent inflammatory signs. Neurology. 1989 Aug;39(8):1118-20. PMID: 2668788 [PubMed]

 

Schmid GP. Epidemiology and clinical similarities of human spirochetal diseases. Rev Infect Dis. 1989;11 Suppl 6:S1460-9. [PubMed]

 

Yoshinari NH, de Barros PJ, Bonoldi VL, Ishikawa M, Battesti DM, Pirana S, da Fonseca AH, Schumaker TT. [Outline of Lyme borreliosis in Brazil]. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo. 1997;52(2):111-7. [Article in Portuguese] [PubMed]

Lyme And Organs

 

Late Lyme Disease Of Kidney And Ureter

 

Finnian R. Mc Causland, Sophie Niedermaier, Vanesa Bijol, Helmut G. Rennke, Mary E. Choi, John P. Forman; Lyme disease-associated glomerulonephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011; 26 (9): 3054-3056. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfr335 [PubMed]

 

Florens N, Lemoine S, Guebre-Egziabher F, et al. Chronic Lyme borreliosis associated with minimal change glomerular disease: a case report. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18(1). doi:10.1186/s12882-017-0462-4. [PubMed]

 

Kelly B, Finnegan P, Cormican M, et al. . Lyme disease and glomerulonephritis, Ir Med J, 1999, vol. 92 pg. 372 [PubMed]

 

Papineni P, Doherty T, Pickett T, et al. . Membranous glomerulonephritis secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection presenting as nephrotic syndrome, NDT Plus, 2010, vol. 3 (pg. 105-106)

[PubMed] [Google Scholar Cross Ref]

 

Rawal B, Rovner L, Thakar C, et al. MPGN and nephrotic syndrome secondary to Lyme disease, Am J Kidney Dis (abstract), 2008, vol. 51 pg. B83 [Google Scholar Cross Ref]

 

 

Lyme Nephritis

 

Kelly B, Finnegan P, Cormican M, Callaghan J. Lyme disease and glomerulonephritis. Ir Med J. 2017;92(5):372. [PubMed]

 

Kirmizis D, Chatzidimitriou D. Comment on 'Membranous glomerulonephritis secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection presenting as nephrotic syndrome'. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2010;25(5):1723-1727. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfq028. [PubMed]

 

Kirmizis D, Chatzidimitriou D. Renal Manifestations of Lyme Disease: Interplay between Infection and Immunostimulation. In: Holmgren A, Borg G, ed. Handbook Of Disease Outbreaks: Prevention, Detection And Control. 1st ed. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc; 2010. [Article]

 

Kirmizis D, Efstratiadis G, Economidou D, Diza-Mataftsi E, Leontsini M, Memmos D. MPGN secondary to lyme disease. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2004;43(3):544-551. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2003.11.014. [PubMed]

 

Kwiatkowska E, Gołembiewska E, Ciechanowski K, Kędzierska K. Minimal-Change Disease Secondary toBorrelia burgdorferiInfection. Case Reports in Nephrology. 2012;2012:1-3. doi:10.1155/2012/294532. [PubMed]

 

Mc Causland F, Niedermaier S, Bijol V, Rennke H, Choi M, Forman J. Lyme disease-associated glomerulonephritis. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2011;26(9):3054-3056. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfr335. [PubMed]

 

Papineni P, Doherty T, Pickett T, Toth T, Boddana P. Membranous glomerulonephritis secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection presenting as nephrotic syndrome. Clinical Kidney Journal. 2009;3(1):105-106. doi:10.1093/ndtplus/sfp160. [PubMed]

 

Rawal B, Rovner L, Thakar C, Pollock J. 221: MPGN and Nephrotic Syndrome (NS) Secondary to Lyme Disease (LD). American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2008;51(4):B83. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.02.231. [Article]

 

 

Late Lyme Disease Of Bronchus And Lung

 

Faul JL, Ruoss S, Doye RL. Diaphgramatic paralysis due to Lyme disease. Eur Respir J. 1999;13:700–702. doi: 10.1183/09031936.99.13370099. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

 

Nguyen H, Le C, Nguyen H. Acute lyme infection presenting with amyopathic dermatomyositis and rapidly fatal interstitial pulmonary fibrosis: a case report. J Med Case Reports. 2010;4(1). doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-187. [PubMed]

 

Silva MT, Sophar M, Howard RS. Neuroborreliosis as a cause of respiratory failure. J Neurol. 1992;242:604–607. doi: 10.1007/BF00868815. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

 

 

Late Lyme Disease Of Liver And Other Viscera

 

Krause PJ, Telford SR, Spielman A, et al. Concurrent Lyme disease and babesiosis. Evidence for increased severity and duration of illness. JAMA. 1996;275(21):1657-1660. [PubMed]

 

Muslmani M, Gilson M, Sudre A, Juvin R, Gaudin P. [Lyme disease with hepatitis and corticosteroids: a case report]. [in French]. Rev Med Interne. 2012;33(6):339-342. doi:10.1016/j.revmed.2012.01.016. [PubMed]

 

 

Lyme Hepatitis

 

Comstock LE, Thomas DD. Penetration of endothelial cell monolayers by Borrelia burgdorferi, Infect Immun , 1989, vol. 57 (pg. 1626-8) [PubMed]

 

Goellner MH, Agger WA, Burgess JH, Duray PH. Hepatitis due to recurrent Lyme disease, Ann Intern Med , 1988, vol. 108 (pg. 707-8) [PubMed]

 

Schaible UE, Gay S, Museteanu C, et al. . Lyme borreliosis in the severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mouse manifests predominantly in the joint, heart and liver, Am J Pathol, 1990, vol. 137 (pg. 811-20) [PubMed]

 

Zaidi SA, Singer C. Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Manifestations of Tickborne Diseases in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2002:34(9):1206-1212. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1086/339871 [PubMed]

Lyme And The Brain

 

Atrophic Form Of Lyme Meningoencephalitis With Dementia And Subacute Presenile Dementia

 

Aasly J, Nilsen G. Cerebral atrophy in Lyme disease. Neuroradiology. 1990;32:252. [PubMed]

 

Allen HB, Morales D. Alzheimers disease: A novel hypothesis integrating spirochetes, biofilm, and the immune system. Journal of Neuroinfectious Diseases. 2016;07(01). doi:10.4172/2314-7326.1000200. [Article]

 

Almeida OP, Lautenschlager NT. Dementia associated with infectious diseases. International Psychogeriatrics. 2005;17(S1):S65. doi:10.1017/s104161020500195x. [PubMed]

 

Bu X, Yao X, Jiao S et al. A study on the association between infectious burden and Alzheimer's disease. European Journal of Neurology. 2014;22(12):1519-1525. doi:10.1111/ene.12477. [PubMed]

 

Dupuis MJ. Multiple neurologic manifestations of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Rev Neurol. 1988;144:765–75. [PubMed]

 

Duray PH. The surgical pathology of human Lyme disease. An enlarging picture. Am J Surg Pathol. 1987;11(Suppl 1):47–60. [PubMed]

 

Itzhaki R, Lathe R, Balin B et al. Microbes and Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2016;51(4):979-984. doi:10.3233/jad-160152. [PubMed]

 

Juchnowicz D, Rudnik I, Czernikiewicz A, Zajkowska J, Pancewicz SA. [Mental disorders in the course of lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis] [in Polish]. Przeglad epidemiologiczny. 2002;56:37–50. [PubMed]

 

Koc F, Bozdemir H, Pekoz T, Aksu H, Ozcan S, Kurdak H. Lyme disease presenting as subacute transverse myelitis. Acta Neurol Belg. 2009;109(4):326-9. [PubMed]

 

MacDonald A, Miranda J. Concurrent neocortical borreliosis and Alzheimer's disease. Human Pathology. 1987;18(7):759-761. doi:10.1016/s0046- 8177(87)80252-6. [PubMed]

 

MacDonald AB. Borrelia in the brains of patients dying with dementia. JAMA. 1986;256:2195–6. [PubMed]

 

Mawanda F, Wallace R. Can infections cause Alzheimer’s disease? Epidemiologic Reviews. 2013;35(1):161–180. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxs007. [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J, Gern L, Darekar P, Janzer RC, Van der Loos H. Senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads contain DNA? Journal of Spirochetal and Tick Borne-Diseases. 1995;2:1–5.

 

Miklossy J, Kasas S, Janzer RC, Ardizzoni F, Van der Loos H. Further ultrastructural evidence that spirochaetes may play a role in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. Neuroreport. 1994;5:1201–4. [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J, Kasas S, Zurn A, McCall S, Yu S, McGeer P. Persisting atypical and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and local inflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2008;5(1):40. doi:10.1186/1742-2094-5-40. [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J, Khalili K, Gern L, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the brain in chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis and may be associated with Alzheimer disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2004;6(6):639–649. [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J, Kis A, Radenovic A, et al. Beta-amyloid deposition and Alzheimer’s type changes induced by Borrelia spirochetes. Neurobiology of Aging. 2006;27(2):228–236. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.01.018. [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J. Alzheimer’s disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch’s and hill’s criteria. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2011;8(1):90. doi:10.1186/1742-2094-8-90. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J. Alzheimer's disease--a spirochetosis? Neuroreport. 1993;4:841–8. [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J. Bacterial Amyloid and DNA are Important Constituents of Senile Plaques: Further Evidence of the Spirochetal and Biofilm Nature of Senile Plaques. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2016;53(4):1459-1473. doi:10.3233/jad-160451. [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J. Chronic inflammation and amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer’s disease -- role of Spirochetes. Journal of Alzheimer’s disease : JAD. 2008;13(4):381–91. [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J. Emerging roles of pathogens in Alzheimer disease. Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine. 2011;13. doi:10.1017/s1462399411002006. [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J. Historic evidence to support a causal relationship between spirochetal infections and Alzheimer’s disease. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2015;7. doi:10.3389/fnagi.2015.00046. [PubMed Central]

 

Miklossy J: The spirochetal etiology of Alzheimer’s disease: A putative therapeutic approach. In Alzheimer Disease: Therapeutic Strategies. Proceedings of the Third International Springfield Alzheimer Symposium. Edited by: Giacobini E, Becker R. Birkhauser Boston Inc.; 1994:, Part I: 41-48.

 

Pennekamp A, Jaques M. [Chronic neuroborreliosis with gait ataxia and cognitive disorders] [in German]. Praxis. 1997;86(20):867–9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9312817. Accessed February 27, 2017. [PubMed]

 

Reik L Jr, Burgdorfer W, Donaldson JO. Neurologic abnormalities in Lyme disease without erythema chronicum migrans. Am J Med. 1986;81:73–8. [PubMed]

 

Schaeffer S, Le Doze F, De la Sayette V, Bertran F, Viader F. Dementia in Lyme disease. Presse Med. 1994;23:861. [PubMed]

 

Tarasów E, Ustymowicz A, Zajkowska J, Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T. [Neuroborreliosis: CT and MRI findings in 14 cases. Preliminary communication] [in Polish]. Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska. 2002;35(5):803–13. [PubMed]

 

Waniek C, Prohovnik I, Kaufman MA, Dwork AJ. Rapidly progressive frontal-type dementia associated with Lyme disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1995;7:345–7. [PubMed]

 

Intracranial Aneurysm

 

Oksi J, Kalimo H, Marttila RJ, Marjamäki M, Sonninen P, Nikoskelainen J, Viljanen MK. Intracranial aneurysms in three patients with disseminated Lyme borreliosis: cause or chance association? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998;64:636–642. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.64.5.636. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

 

Polet JD, Weinstein HC. Lyme borreliosis and intracranial aneurysm. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999;66:806–807. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.66.6.806a. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

 

 

Late Lyme Encephalitis

 

Rocha R, Lisboa L, Neves J, García López M, Santos E, Ribeiro A. Neuroborreliosis Presenting as Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2012;28(12):1374-1376. doi:10.1097/pec.0b013e318276c51d. [PubMed]

 

Verma V, Roman MShah D, Zaretskaya M, Yassin MH. A case of chronic progressive lyme encephalitis as a manifestation of late lyme neuroborreliosis. Infect Dis Rep. 2014 Dec 11;6(4):5496. doi: 10.4081/idr.2014.5496. eCollection 2014 [PubMed]

 

 

Late Lyme Meningoencephalitis Or Meningomyelo Encephalitis

 

Ackermann R, Gollmer E, Rehse-Küpper B. [Progressive Borrelia encephalomyelitis. Chronic manifestation of erythema chronicum migrans disease of the nervous system]. [in German]. DMW - Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 1985;110(26):1039-1042. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1068956. [PubMed]

 

Bensch J, Olcen P, Hagberg L. Destructive chronic borrelia meningoencephalitis in a child untreated for 15 years. Scand J Infect Dis. 1987;19:697–700. [PubMed]

 

Bertrand E, Szpak GM, Pilkowska E, et al. Central nervous system infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Clinico-pathological correlation of three post- mortem cases. Folia neuropathologica. 1999;37:43–51. [PubMed]

 

Bogsrud T, Odegaard B. [Tick-borne borreliosis. A case of chronic meningoencephalitis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi]. [in Norwegian]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1987;107(1):25-7, 49. [PubMed]

 

Cassarino DS, Quezado MM, Ghatak NR, Duray PH. Lyme-associated parkinsonism: a neuropathologic case study and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127:1204–6. [PubMed]

 

Czyrny M, Jura E, Seniow J, Baranska M, Wilske B, Czlonkowska A. [Severe meningoencephalitis in Borrelia burgdorferi infection]. [in Polish]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 1998;32:387–93. [PubMed]

 

De Cauwer H, Declerck S, De Smet J, et al. Motor neuron disease features in a patient with neuroborreliosis and a cervical anterior horn lesion. Acta clinica Belgica. 2009;64:225–7. [PubMed]

 

Diringer MN, Halperin JJ, Dattwyler RJ. Lyme meningoencephalitis: report of a severe, penicillin-resistant case. Arthritis Rheum. 1987;30:705–8. [PubMed]

 

Drouet A, Meyer X, Guilloton L, et al. [Acute severe leukoencephalitis with posterior lesions due to Borrelia burgdorferi infection]. [in French]. Presse Med. 2003;32:1607–9. [PubMed]

 

Duray PH, Steere AC. Clinical pathologic correlations of Lyme disease by stage. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:65–79. [PubMed]

 

Duray PH, Steere AC. The spectrum of organ and systems pathology in human Lyme disease. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986;263:169–78. [PubMed]

 

Duray PH. Histopathology of clinical phases of human Lyme disease. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1989;15:691–710. [PubMed]

 

Duray PH. The surgical pathology of human Lyme disease. An enlarging picture. Am J Surg Pathol. 1987;11(Suppl 1):47–60. [PubMed]

 

Fénelon G, Chaine P, Lèche J, Guillard A. [Isolated meningoencephalitis in Lyme disease]. [in French]. Ann Med Interne (Paris). 1987;138(2):149-50. [PubMed]

 

Ferroir J, Reignier A, Nicolle M, Guillard A. [Meningoradiculoencephalitis in Lyme disease. A case with major regressive mental disorders], [in French]. Presse Med. 1988;17(14):697. [PubMed]

 

Kacinski M, Zajac A, Skowronek-Bala B, Kroczka S, Gergont A, Kubik A. CNS Lyme disease manifestation in children. Przeglad lekarski. 2007;64(Suppl 3):38–40. [PubMed]

 

Kawano Y, Shigeto H, Shiraishi Y, Ohyagi Y, Kira J. Case of Borrelia brainstem encephalitis presenting with severe dysphagia. Clin Neurol. 2010;50:265–7. [PubMed]

 

Nadelman RB, Nowakowski J, Forseter G, et al. The clinical spectrum of early Lyme borreliosis in patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans. Am J Med. 1996;100:502–8. [PubMed]

 

Neumarker KJ, Dudeck U, Plaza P. [Borrelia encephalitis and catatonia in adolescence]. [in German]. Nervenarzt. 1989;60:115–9. [PubMed]

 

Oksi J, Kalimo H, Marttila RJ, et al. Inflammatory brain changes in Lyme borreliosis. A report on three patients and review of literature. Brain. 1996;119( Pt 6):2143–54. [PubMed]

 

Oksi J, Viljanen MK, Kalimo H, et al. Fatal encephalitis caused by concomitant infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus and Borrelia burgdorferi. Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious. Dis Soc Am. 1993;16:392–6. [PubMed]

 

Omasits M, Seiser A, Brainin M. [Recurrent and relapsing course of borreliosis of the nervous system]. [in German]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1990;102:4–12. [PubMed]

 

Oschmann P, Dorndorf W, Hornig C, Schafer C, Wellensiek HJ, Pflughaupt KW. Stages and syndromes of neuroborreliosis. J Neurol. 1998;245:262–72. [PubMed]

 

Pachner AR, Duray P, Steere AC. Central nervous system manifestations of Lyme disease. Arch Neurol. 1989;46:790–5. [PubMed]

 

Pennekamp A, Jaques M. [Chronic neuroborreliosis with gait ataxia and cognitive disorders]. [in German]. Praxis (Bern 1994). 1997;86(20):867-9. [PubMed]

 

Pfefferkorn T, Feddersen B, Schulte-Altedorneburg G, Linn J, Pfister HW. Tick-borne encephalitis with polyradiculitis documented by MRI. Neurology. 2007;68:1232–3. [PubMed]

 

Ponz E, Graus F, Alvarez R, Sarmiento X, Vidal J, Grau JM. [Meningoencephalomyelitis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi: a case without epidemiologic history or chronic migratory erythema]. [in Spanish]. Med Clin (Barc). 1989;93:218–20. [PubMed]

 

Reik L Jr, Burgdorfer W, Donaldson JO. Neurologic abnormalities in Lyme disease without erythema chronicum migrans. Am J Med. 1986;81:73–8. [PubMed]

 

Shadick NA, Phillips CB, Logigian EL, et al. The long-term clinical outcomes of Lyme disease. A population-based retrospective cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121:560–7. [PubMed]

 

Weder B, Wiedersheim P, Matter L, Steck A, Otto F. Chronic progressive neurological involvement in Borrelia burgdorferi infection. J Neurol. 1987;234:40–3. [PubMed]

 

 

Lyme Meningitis

 

Bingham PM, Galetta SL, Athreya B, Sladky J. Neurologic manifestations in children with Lyme disease. Pediatrics. 1995;96:1053-1056. [PubMed]

 

Ginsberg L, Kidd D. Chronic and recurrent meningitis. Pract Neurol. 2008 Dec;8(6):348-61. Review doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2008.157396. [PubMed]

 

Pachner AR. Early disseminated Lyme disease: Lyme meningitis. Am J Med. 1995 Apr 24;98(4A):30S-37S; discussion 37S-43S. [PubMed]

 

Steere AC, Bartenhagen NH, Craft JE, Hutchinson GJ, Newman JH, Pachner AR, Rahn DW, Sigal LH, Taylor E, Malawista SE. Clinical manifestations of Lyme disease. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986;263(1-2):201-5. [PubMed]

 

 

Lyme Parkinsonism

 

Cassarino DS, Quezado MM, Ghatak NR, Duray PH. Lyme-associated parkinsonism: a neuropathologic case study and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127(9):1204-6. [PubMed]

 

Scholz SW, Bras J. Genetics Underlying Atypical Parkinsonism and Related Neurodegenerative Disorders. Jellinger KA, ed. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015;16(10):24629-24655. doi:10.3390/ijms161024629 [PubMed]

 

 

Meningovascular And Neuroborreliosis – With Cerebral Infarcts

 

Almoussa M1, Goertzen A1, Fauser B1, Zimmermann CW1. Stroke as an Unusual First Presentation of Lyme Disease. Case Rep Neurol Med. 2015;2015:389081. doi: 10.1155/2015/389081. Epub 2015 Dec 16. [PubMed]

 

Back T1, Grünig S, Winter Y, Bodechtel U, Guthke K, Khati D, von Kummer R. Neuroborreliosis-associated cerebral vasculitis: long-term outcome and health-related quality of life. J Neurol. 2013 Jun;260(6):1569-75. doi: 10.1007/s00415-013-6831-4. [PubMed]

 

Blažina K, Miletić V, Relja M, Bažadona D. Cerebral sinuvenous thrombosis: a rare complication of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 2014;127(1-2):65-67. doi:10.1007/s00508-014-0622-5. [PubMed]

 

Brogan GX, Homan CS, Viccellio P. The enlarging clinical spectrum of Lyme disease: Lyme cerebral vasculitis, a new disease entity. Ann Emerg Med. 1990;19:572–6. [PubMed]

 

Defer G, Levy R, Brugieres P, Postic D, Degos JD. Lyme disease presenting as a stroke in the vertebrobasilar territory: MRI. Neuroradiology. 1993;35:529– 31. [PubMed]

 

Hammers-Berggren S, Grondahl A, Karlsson M, von Arbin M, Carlsson A, Stiernstedt G. Screening for neuroborreliosis in patients with stroke. Stroke. 1993;24:1393–6. [PubMed]

 

Hanny PE, Hauselmann HJ. [Lyme disease from the neurologist's viewpoint]. [in German]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1987;117:901–15. [PubMed]

 

Heinrich A, Khaw AV, Ahrens N, Kirsch M, Dressel A. Cerebral vasculitis as the only manifestation of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a 17-year-old patient with basal ganglia infarction. Eur Neurol. 2003;50:109–12. [PubMed]

 

Keil R, Baron R, Kaiser R, Deuschl G. [Vasculitis course of neuroborreliosis with thalamic infarct]. [in German]. Nervenarzt. 1997;68:339–41. [PubMed]

 

Klingebiel R, Benndorf G, Schmitt M, von Moers A, Lehmann R. Large cerebral vessel occlusive disease in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Neuropediatrics. 2002;33:37–40. [PubMed]

 

Kraemer M, Berlit P. Systemic, secondary and infectious causes for cerebral vasculitis: clinical experience with 16 new European cases. Rheumatology International. 2009;30(11):1471-1476. doi:10.1007/s00296-009-1172-4. [PubMed]

 

Kuntzer T, Bogousslavsky J, Miklossy J, Steck AJ, Janzer R, Regli F. Borrelia rhombencephalomyelopathy. Arch Neurol. 1991;48:832–6. [PubMed]

 

Kurian M, Pereira VM, Vargas MI, Fluss J. Stroke-like Phenomena Revealing Multifocal Cerebral Vasculitis in Pediatric Lyme Neuroborreliosis. J Child Neurol. 2015 Aug;30(9):1226-9. doi: 10.1177/0883073814552104. [PubMed]

 

Laroche C, Lienhardt A, Boulesteix J. [Ischemic stroke caused by neuroborreliosis]. [in French]. Arch Pediatr. 1999;6(12):1302-5. [PubMed]

 

Lebas A, Toulgoat F, Saliou G, Husson B, Tardieu M. Stroke Due to Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Changes in Vessel Wall Contrast Enhancement. J Neuroimag. 2012;22(12):210–2. [PubMed]

 

May EF, Jabbari B. Stroke in neuroborreliosis. Stroke. 1990;21:1232–5. [PubMed]

 

Midgard R, Hofstad H. Unusual manifestations of nervous system Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Arch Neurol. 1987;44:781–3. [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J, Kuntzer T, Bogousslavsky J, Regli F, Janzer RC. Meningovascular form of neuroborreliosis: similarities between neuropathological findings in a case of Lyme disease and those occurring in tertiary neurosyphilis. Acta Neuropathol. 1990;80:568–72. [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J. Biology and neuropathology of dementia in syphilis and Lyme disease. Handb Clin Neurol. 2008;89:825–44. [PubMed]

 

Olsson JE, Zbornikova V. Neuroborreliosis simulating a progressive stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 1990;81:471–4. [PubMed]

 

Reik L., Jr Stroke due to Lyme disease. Neurology. 1993;43:2705–7. [PubMed]

 

Rey V, Du Pasquier R, Muehl A, Peter O, Michel P. [Multiple ischemic strokes due to Borrelia garinii meningovasculitis]. [in French]. Rev Neurol (Paris) 2010;166:931–4. [PubMed]

 

Romi F, Krakenes J, Aarli JA, Tysnes OB. Neuroborreliosis with vasculitis causing stroke-like manifestations. Eur Neurol. 2004;51:49–50. [PubMed]

 

Schmiedel J, Gahn G, von Kummer R, Reichmann H. Cerebral vasculitis with multiple infarcts caused by lyme disease. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2004;17:79–81. [PubMed]

 

Schmitt AB, Kuker W, Nacimiento W. [Neuroborreliosis with extensive cerebral vasculitis and multiple cerebral infarcts]. [in German]. Nervenarzt. 1999;70:167–71. [PubMed]

 

Shadick NA, Phillips CB, Logigian EL, et al. The long-term clinical outcomes of Lyme disease. A population-based retrospective cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121:560–7. [PubMed]

 

Sparsa L, Blanc F, Lauer V, Cretin B, Marescaux C, Wolff V. Recurrent ischemic strokes revealing Lyme meningovascularitis. Rev Neurol (Paris) 2009;165:273–7. [PubMed]

 

Topakian R, Stieglbauer K, Aichner FT. Unexplained cerebral vasculitis and stroke: keep Lyme neuroborreliosis in mind. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:756–7. [PubMed]

 

Uldry PA, Regli F, Bogousslavsky J. Cerebral angiopathy and recurrent strokes following Borrelia burgdorferi infection. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat. 1987;50:1703–4. [PubMed Central]

 

Van Snick S, Duprez TP, Kabamba B, Van De Wyngaert FA, Sindic CJ. Acute ischaemic pontine stroke revealing lyme neuroborreliosis in a young adult. Acta Neurol Belg. 2008;108:103–6. [PubMed]

 

Veenendaal-Hilbers JA, Perquin WV, Hoogland PH, Doornbos L. Basal meningovasculitis and occlusion of the basilar artery in two cases of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Neurology. 1988;38:1317–9. [PubMed]

 

Wittwer B, Pelletier S, Ducrocq X, Maillard L, Mione G, Richard S. Cerebrovascular Events in Lyme Neuroborreliosis. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015 Jul;24(7):1671-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2015.03.056. [PubMed]

 

Zajkowska J, Garkowski A, Moniuszko A et al. Vasculitis and stroke due to Lyme neuroborreliosis – a review. Infectious Diseases. 2014;47(1):1-6. doi:10.3109/00365548.2014.961544. [PubMed]

 

Zhang Y, Lafontant G, Bonner FJ., Jr Lyme neuroborreliosis mimics stroke: a case report. Arch phys Med Rehab. 2000;81:519–21. [PubMed]

 

 

Neuropsychiatric Manifestations

 

Fallon B, Kochevar J, Gaito A, Nields J. The underdiagnosis of neuropsychiatric lyme disease in children and adults. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 1998;21(3):693-703. doi:10.1016/s0193-953x(05)70032-0. [PubMed]

 

Fallon BA, Nields JA. Lyme disease: a neuropsychiatric illness. The Am J Psychiatr. 1994;151:1571–83. [PubMed]

 

Fallon B, Nields J, Parsons B, Liebowitz M, Klein D. Psychiatric manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Psychiatry. 1993;54(7):263-8. [Europe PMC] [PubMed]

 

Tager FA, Fallon BA, Keilp J, Rissenberg M, Jones CR, Liebowitz MR. A controlled study of cognitive deficits in children with chronic Lyme disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;13(4):500-7. [PubMed]

 

 

Symptomatic Late Lyme Neuroborreliosis

 

Burakgazi AZ. Lyme disease –induced polyradiculopathy mimicking amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Inter J of Neuroscience. 2014;124(11):859–862. doi:10.3109/00207454.2013.879582. [PubMed]

 

 Christova I, Komitova R. Clinical and epidemiological features of Lyme borreliosis in Bulgaria. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2004;116(1-2):42-6. [PubMed]

 

 Lawrence C, Lipton RB, Lowy FD, Coyle PK. Seronegative Chronic Relapsing Neuroborreliosis. Eur Neurol 1995;35:113-117. [PubMed]

 

Marconi RT, Hohenberger S, Jauris-Heipke S, Schulte-Spechtel U, LaVoie CP, Rößler D, Wilske B. Genetic Analysis of Borrelia garinii OspA Serotype 4 Strains Associated with Neuroborreliosis: Evidence for Extensive Genetic Homogeneity. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37(12): 3965–3970. [PubMed Central]

 

Nafeev AA, Klimova LV. [Clinical manifestations of neuroborreliosis in the Volga region]. [Article in Russian]. Ter Arkh. 2010;82(11):68-70. [PubMed]

 

 

Symptomatic Lyme Neuroborreliosis, Unspecified

 

Miklossy J. Chronic or late lyme neuroborreliosis: analysis of evidence compared to chronic or late neurosyphilis. Open Neurol J. 2012;6:146-57. doi: 10.2174/1874205X01206010146. Epub 2012 Dec 28. [PubMed]

 

Miklossy J (2015) Historic evidence to support a causal relationship between spirochetal infections and Alzheimer’s disease. Front Aging Neurosci 7, 46. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

 

Yoshinari NH, de Barros PJ, Bonoldi VL, Ishikawa M, Battesti DM, Pirana S, da Fonseca AH, Schumaker TT. [Outline of Lyme borreliosis in Brazil]. [in Portuguese]. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo. 1997;52(2):111-7. [PubMed]

 

Puri, Hakkarainen-Smith, Monro. The effect of artesunate on short-term memory in Lyme borreliosis. 2017 Aug;105:4-5. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2017.06.015. Epub 2017 Jun 24. [PubMed]

Lyme And The Eye

 

Late Lyme Oculopathy

 

Drenckhahn A, Spors B, Knierim E. Acute isolated partial oculomotor nerve palsy due to Lyme neuroborreliosis in a 5 year old girl. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. 2016;20(6):977-979. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2016.05.022. [PubMed]

 

Karma A, Seppälä I, Mikkilä H, Kaakkola S, Viljanen M, Tarkkanen A. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics of ocular Lyme borreliosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;119(2):127-135. [PubMed]

 

Golubić D, Vinković T, Turk D, Hranilović J, Slugan I. [Ocular manifestations of Lyme borreliosis in northwest Croatia]. [in Croatian]. Lijec Vjesn. 2004;126(5- 6):124-128. [PubMed]

 

Mikkilä HO, Seppälä IJ, Viljanen MK, Peltomaa MP, Karma A. The expanding clinical spectrum of ocular lyme borreliosis. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(3):581- 587. [PubMed]

 

 

Lyme Oculopathy

 

Karma A, Seppälä I, Mikkilä H, Kaakkola S, Viljanen M, Tarkkanen A. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics of ocular Lyme borreliosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;119(2):127-35. doi:10.1016/s0002-9394(14)73864-4. [PubMed]

 

Mikkilä HO, Seppala IJ, Viljanen MK, Peltomaa MP, Karma A. The expanding clinical spectrum of ocular lyme borreliosis. Ophthalmology 2000;107:581-587. [PubMed]

 

Raja H, Starr MR, Bakri SJ. Ocular manifestations of tick-borne diseases. Surv Ophthalmol. 2016;61(6):726-744. Review. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2016.03.011. [PubMed]

 

Sathiamoorthi S, Smith WM. The eye and tick-borne disease in the United States. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2016;27(6):530-537. Review. DOI: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000308 [PubMed]

 

 

Lyme Iridocyclitis, Iritis

 

Boutros A, Rahn E, Nauheim R. Iritis and papillitis as a primary presentation of Lyme disease. Ann Ophthalmol. 1990;22(1):24-5. [PubMed]

 

Golubić D, Vinković T, Turk D, Hranilović J, Slugan I. [Ocular manifestations of Lyme borreliosis in northwest Croatia]. Lijec Vjesn. 2004;126(5-6):124-8. [Article in Croatian] [PubMed]

 

Winward KE, Smith JL, Culbertson WW, Paris-Hamelin A. Ocular Lyme borreliosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989;15;108(6):651-7. [PubMed]

 

 

Lyme Uveitis

 

Isogai E, Isogai H, Kotake S, Yoshikawa K, Ichiishi A, Kosaka S, Sato N, Hayashi S, Oguma K, Ohno S. Detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;15;112(1):23-30. [PubMed]

 

Marguet C, Rouillier-Saas M, Mallet E, Meunier M, Jeannot E, Boulloche J, Forget C. [Lyme disease in Upper Normandy: report of a hospital survey]. Arch Pediatr. 2000;7 Suppl 3:517s-522s. French. [PubMed]

 

Veyssier P. [Clinical manifestations of Lyme disease]. Rev Prat. 1989; 18;39(15):1294-9. French [PubMed]

Lyme And The Heart

 

Coronary Artery Aneurysm

 

Gasser R, Watzinger N, Eber B, Luha O, Reisinger E, Seinost G, Klein W. Coronary artery aneurysm in two patients with long-standing Lyme borreliosis. Borreliosis Study Group. Lancet. 1994;344:1300–1301. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(94)90789-7. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

 

Clinckaert C, Bidgoli S, Verbeet T, Attou R, Gottignies P, Massaut J, Reper P. Peroperative cardiogenic shock suggesting acute coronary syndrome as initial manifestation of Lyme carditis. J Clin Anesth. 2016 Dec;35:430-433. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2016.08.005. Epub 2016 Oct 18. [PubMed]

 

Cuisset T, Hamilos M, Vanderheyden M. Coronary aneurysm in Lyme Disease: treatment by covered stent. Int J Cardiol. 2008 Aug 18;128(2):e72-3. [PubMed]

 

Watzinger N, Fruhwald FM, Schafhalter I, Hermann J, Luha O, Zweiker R, Gasser R, Eber B, Klein W. [Coronary aneurysm in a 69-year-old patient. Transthoracic echocardiography]. Ultraschall Med. 1995 Aug;16(4):200-2. German. [PubMed]

 

 

Late Lyme Endocarditis

 

Błaut-Jurkowska J, Olszowska M, Kaźnica-Wiatr M, Piotr Podolec P. [Lyme carditis]. [Article in Polish]. Pol Med J. 2015;39(230):111–115. [PubMed]

 

Kuchynka P, Palecek T, Havranek S et al. Recent-onset dilated cardiomyopathy associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Herz. 2015;40(6):892-897. doi:10.1007/s00059-015-4308-1. [PubMed]

 

Plocarová K. [Inflammatory borrelia - associated dilated cardiomyopathy]. [Article in Czech]. Vnitr Lek. 2013;59(12):1107-10. [PubMed]

 

 

Lyme Aortic Aneurysm

 

Cuisset T, Hamilos M, Vanderheyden M. Coronary aneurysm in Lyme disease: Treatment by covered stent. International Journal of Cardiology. 2008;128(2):e72–e73. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.04.163. [PubMed]

 

Gasser R, Watzinger N, Eber B et al. Coronary artery aneurysm in two patients with long-standing Lyme borreliosis. The Lancet. 1994;344(8932):1300-1301. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(94)90789-7. [PubMed]

 

Hinterseher I1, Gäbel G, Corvinus F, Lück C, Saeger HD, Bergert H, Tromp

G, Kuivaniemi H. Presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato antibodies in the serum of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 May;31(5):781-9. doi: 10.1007/s10096-011-1375-y. Epub 2011 Aug 13. [PubMed]

 

Watzinger N, Fruhwald F, Schafhalter I et al. [Coronary aneurysm in a 69-year-old patient. Transthoracic echocardiography]. Ultraschall in der Medizin - European Journal of Ultrasound. 1995;16(04):200-202. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1003939. [PubMed]

 

Xu L1, Heath J, Burke A. Ascending aortitis: a clinicopathological study of 21 cases in a series of 300 aortic repairs. Pathology. 2014 Jun;46(4):296-305. doi: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000096. [PubMed]

 

 

Lyme Carditis

 

Avitabile C, Harris M, Chowdhury D. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Characterizes Myocarditis in a 16-Year-Old Female With Lyme Disease. World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2016;7(3):394-396. doi:10.1177/2150135115593134. [PubMed]

 

Bacino L, Gazzarata M, Siri G, Cordone S, Bellotti P. [Complete atrioventricular block as the first clinical manifestation of a tick bite (Lyme disease)] [in Italian]. Giornale italiano di cardiologia (2006). 2011;12(3):214–6. [PubMed]

 

Clinckaert C, Bidgoli S, Verbeet T, et al. Peroperative cardiogenic shock suggesting acute coronary syndrome as initial manifestation of Lyme carditis. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2016;35:430–433. doi:10.1016/j.jclinane.2016.08.005. [PubMed]

 

Dernedde S, Piper C, Kühl U, et al. [The Lyme carditis as a rare differential diagnosis to an anterior myocardial infarction] [in German]. Zeitschrift für Kardiologie. 2002;91(12):1053–1060. doi:10.1007/s00392-002-0873-4. [PubMed]

 

Guenther F, Bode C, Faber T. [Reversible complete heart block by re-infection with Borrelia burgdorferi with negative IgM-antibodies] [in German]. Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946). 2008;134:23–6. [PubMed]

 

Karadag B, Spieker L, Schwitter J et al. Lyme carditis: restitutio ad integrum documented by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiology in Review. 2004;12(4):185-187. doi:10.1097/01.crd.0000123841.02777.5d. [PubMed]

 

Kostić T, Momčilović S, Perišić Z et al. Manifestations of Lyme carditis. International Journal of Cardiology. 2017;232:24-32. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.12.169. [PubMed]

 

Kubánek M, Šramko M, Berenová D, et al. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in endomyocardial biopsy specimens in individuals with recent-onset dilated cardiomyopathy. European Journal of Heart Failure. 2012;14(6):588–596. doi:10.1093/eurjhf/hfs027. [PubMed]

 

Meimoun P, Sayah S, Benali T, et al. [Lyme disease presenting as infarction pain. A case report] [in French]. Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux. 2002;94(12):1419–22. [PubMed]

 

Rostoff P, Konduracka E, Massri E, et al. [Lyme carditis presenting as acute coronary syndrome: A case report] [in Polish]. Kardiologia polska. 2008;66(4):420–5. [PubMed]

 

Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Mokracek A, et al. Detection of Borrelia bissettii in cardiac valve tissue of a patient with Endocarditis and Aortic valve Stenosis in the Czech Republic. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2008;46(10):3540–3543. doi:10.1128/jcm.01032-08. [PubMed]

 

Sauvant G, Bossart W, Kurrer M, Follath F. [Diagnosis and course of myocarditis: A survey in the medical clinics of Zurich university hospital 1980 to 1998] [in German]. Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift. 2000;130(36):1265–71. [PubMed]

 

Stanek G, Klein J, Bittner R, Glogar D. Borrelia burgdorferi as an etiologic agent in chronic heart failure? Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases. Supplementum. 1991;77:85–7. [PubMed]

Lyme Lymphadenopathy

 

Błazejewicz-Zawadzińiska M, Brochocka A, Lisińska J, Borowiecki M. [A reprospective analysis of 973 patients with lyme borreliosis in Kuyavian- Pomeranian voivodship in 2000-2005]. [Article in Polish] Przegl Epidemiol. 2012;66(4):581-6. [PubMed]

 

Tunev SS, Hastey CJ, Hodzic E, Feng S, Barthold SW, Baumgarth N. Lymphoadenopathy during lyme borreliosis is caused by spirochete migration- induced specific B cell activation. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7(5):e1002066. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002066. [PubMed]

 

Vukadinov J1, Canak G, Brkić S, Samardzija NM, Aleksić-Dordević M, Turkulov V, Cik-Nad E, Lalosević V. [Clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of Lyme disease treated at the Infectious Disease in Novy Sad 1993-1998]. [Article in Croatian] Med Pregl. 2001;54(9-10):470-5. [PubMed]

Lyme Neuropathy

 

Late Lyme Neuritis Or Neuropathy

 

Habek M, Mubrin Z, Brinar VV. Avellis syndrome due to borreliosis.

Eur J Neurol. 2007;14(1):112-4. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01528.x. [PubMed]

 

Halperin JJ, Little BW, Coyle PK, Dattwyler RJ. Lyme disease: cause of a treatable peripheral neuropathy. Neurology. 1987;37(11):1700-6. [PubMed]

 

Krim E, Guehl D, Burbaud P, and LaguenyA. Retrobulbar optic neuritis: a complication of Lyme disease? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78(12): 1409–1410. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2006.113761. [PubMed Central]

 

Midgard R, Hofstad H. Unusual manifestations of nervous system Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Arch Neurol. 1987;44(7):781-3. [PubMed]

 

Rothermel H, Hedges TR 3rd, Steere AC. Optic neuropathy in children with Lyme disease. Pediatrics. 200;108(2):477-81. [PubMed]

 

Träisk F, Lindquist L. Optic nerve involvement in Lyme disease. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2012;23(6):485-90. doi:10.1097/ICU.0b013e328358b1eb. [PubMed]

Muscle, Bone, And Joint

 

Late Lyme Borreliosis Of Bone And Joint

 

Deanehan JK, Kimia AA, Tan Tanny SP, et al. Distinguishing Lyme from septic knee monoarthritis in Lyme disease-endemic areas. Pediatrics. 2013;131(3):e695- 701. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2531. [PubMed]

 

Jones KL, McHugh GA, Glickstein LJ, Steere AC. Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi genotypes in patients with Lyme arthritis: High frequency of ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer type 1 strains in antibiotic-refractory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60(7):2174-2182. doi:10.1002/art.24812. [PubMed]

 

Lesnicar G, Zerdoner D. Temporomandibular joint involvement caused by Borrelia Burgdorferi. J Cranio-Maxillo-fac Surg Off Publ Eur Assoc Cranio-Maxillo-fac Surg. 2007;35(8):397-400. doi:10.1016/j.jcms.2007.06.003. [PubMed]

 

Pañczuk A, Tokarska-Rodak M, Kozioł-Montewka M, Plewik D. The incidence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti coinfections among foresters and farmers in eastern Poland. J Vector Borne Dis. 2016;53(4):348-354. [PubMed]

 

Renaud I, Cachin C, Gerster J-C. Good outcomes of Lyme arthritis in 24 patients in an endemic area of Switzerland. Jt Bone Spine Rev Rhum. 2004;71(1):39-43. doi:10.1016/S1297-319X(03)00160-X. [PubMed]

 

Schmid G. Epidemiology and Clinical Similarities of Human Spirochetal Diseases. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 1989;11(Supplement 6):S1460-S1469. doi: 10.1093/clinids/11.supplement_6.s1460. [PubMed]

 

Yoshinari NH, de Barros PJ, Bonoldi VL, Ishikawa M, Battesti DM, Pirana S, da Fonseca AH, Schumaker TT. [Outline of Lyme borreliosis in Brazil]. [in Portuguese]. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo. 1997;52(2):111-7. [PubMed]

 

 

Late Lyme Borreliosis Of Other Musculoskeletal Tissue

 

Lipsker D, Hansmann Y, Limbach F, Clerc C, Tranchant C, Grunenberger F, Caro- Sampara F, Attali P, Frey M, Kubina M, Piémont Y, Sibilia J, Jaulhac B; Disease expression of Lyme borreliosis in northeastern France. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001;20(4):225-30. [PubMed]

 

Wendling D, Sevrin P, Bouchaud-Chabot A, et al. Parsonage-Turner syndrome revealing Lyme borreliosis. Jt Bone Spine Rev Rhum. 2009;76(2):202-204. doi:10.1016/j.jbspin.2008.07.013. [PubMed]

 

 

Lyme Myositis

 

Brtkova J, Jirickova P, Kapla J, Dedic K, Pliskova L. Borrelia arthritis and chronic myositis accompanied by typical chronic dermatitis. JBR-BTR. 2008;91(3):88-9. [PubMed]

 

Carvounis PE, Mehta AP, Geist CE. Orbital myositis associated with Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) infection. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(5):1023-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2003.08.032. [PubMed]

 

Holak H, Holak N, Huzarska M, Holak S. Tick inoculation in an eyelid region: report on five cases with one complication of the orbital myositis associated with Lyme borreliosis. Klin Oczna. 2006;108(4-6):220-4. [PubMed]

 

Holmgren AR, Matteson EL. Lyme myositis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(8):2697- 700. [PubMed]

 

Sauer A, Speeg-Schatz C, Hansmann Y. Two cases of orbital myositis as a rare feature of lyme borreliosis. Case Rep Infect Dis. 2011;2011:372470. doi: 10.1155/2011/372470. [PubMed]

 

Waton J, Pinault AL, Pouaha J, Truchetet F. [Lyme disease could mimic dermatomyositis]. [Article in French] Rev Med Interne. 2007 May;28(5):343-5. [PubMed]

Persistent Infection

 

Feng J., Wang T., Shi W., Zhang S., Sullivan D., Auwaerter P.G., Zhang Y. Identification of novel activity against Borrelia burgdorferi persisters using an FDA approved drug library. Emerg. Microbes Infect. 2014;3:e49. doi: 10.1038/emi.2014.53. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

 

Oksi J., Marjamaki M., Nikoskelainen J., Viljanen M.K. Borrelia burgdorferi detected by culture and PCR in clinical relapse of disseminated Lyme borreliosis. Ann. Med. 1999;31:225–232. doi: 10.3109/07853899909115982. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

 

Preac-Mursic V, Pfister HW, Spiegel H, Burk R, Wilske B, Reinhardt S, Bohmer R. First Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from an Iris Biopsy. J Clin Neuro-ophthalmol 1993;13:155-161. [PubMed]

 

Preac-Mursic V, Weber K, Pfister HW, Wilske B, Gross B, Baumann A, Prokop J. Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in Antibiotically Treated Patients with Lyme borreliosis. Infection 1989;17:355-359. [PubMed]

 

Schmidli J., Hunziker T., Moesli P., Schaad U.B. Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi from joint fluid three months after treatment of facial palsy due to Lyme borreliosis. J. Infect. Dis. 1988;158:905–906. doi: 10.1093/infdis/158.4.905. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

Primary Infection

 

Primary Infection - Erythema Migrans

 

Christova I, Komitova R. Clinical and epidemiological features of Lyme borreliosis in Bulgaria. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2004;116(1-2):42-6. [PubMed]

 

Hercogová J, Tománková M, Barták P. Contributions to the treatment of dermatologic manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Cutis. 1992 Jun;49(6):409-11. [PubMed]

 

Lipsker D, Hansmann Y, Limbach F, Clerc C, Tranchant C, Grunenberger F, Caro- Sampara F, Attali P, Frey M, Kubina M, Piémont Y, Sibilia J, Jaulhac B; GEBLY Study Group. Study Group for Lyme Borreliosis. Disease expression of Lyme borreliosis in northeastern France. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001;20(4):225- 30. [PubMed]

 

Melski JW, Reed KD, Mitchell PD, Barth GD. Primary and secondary erythema migrans in central Wisconsin. Arch Dermatol. 1993;129(6):709-16. [PubMed]

 

Schmid GP. Epidemiology and clinical similarities of human spirochetal diseases. Rev Infect Dis. 1989;11Suppl 6:S1460-9. Review type. [PubMed]

 

 

Primary Infection, Seronegative

 

Coyle PK, Deng Z, Schutzer SE, Belman AL, Benach J, Krupp LB, Luft B. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi antigens in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurology 1993;43:1093- 1097. [PubMed]

 

Coyle PK, Schutzer SE, Deng Z, et al. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antigen in antibody-negative cerebrospinal fluid in neurologic Lyme disease. Neurology. 1995;45(11):2010–2015. [PubMed]

 

Dattwyler RJ, Volkman DJ, Luft BJ, Halperin JJ, Thomas J, Golightly MG. Seronegative Lyme Disease. Dissociation of T- and B-Lymphocyte Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi. N Engl J Med 1988;319:1441-6. [PubMed]

 

Holak H1, Holak N, Huzarska M, Holak S. Tick inoculation in an eyelid region: report on five cases with one complication of the orbital myositis associated with Lyme borreliosis. Klin Oczna. 2006;108(4-6):220-4. [PubMed]

 

Karma A, Seppälä I, Mikkilä H, Kaakkola S, Viljanen M, Tarkkanen A. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics of ocular Lyme borreliosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;119(2):127-35. [PubMed]

 

Lawrence C, Lipton RB, Lowy FD, Coyle PK. Seronegative Chronic Relapsing Neuroborreliosis. Eur Neurol 1995;35:113-117. [PubMed]

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